Monday, August 13, 2012

Should A 17 Year Old High School Student Be Awarded $100,000 For Research She Did Not Conduct?

There is a new device or futuristic "medicine delivery system" that was "designed" by a 17 year old female high school student (name withheld because of her age as a minor) that could accelerate the prognosis of destroying cancerous cells and it is a prototype model for a nanotechnological breakthrough for preventing cancer  based on polymer module that houses the medication and the imaging process that uses infrared technology that have been claimed to be a non-invasive medical regimen. Her project was entitled “Design of Image-guided, Photo-thermal Controlled Drug Releasing Multifunctional Nanosystem for the Treatment of Cancer Stem Cells.” The major difficulties in diagnosing diseases like cancer is the inability to see inside the body accurately and inexpensively. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is great, it is expensive and has relatively low resolution; while X-ray imaging has higher resolution, it comes with dangers. Whereas, ultrasound has value in terms of resolution, safety, and cost; there is also a prevalent study that identifies a similar system. Despite this fact, she was awarded a $100,000 scholarship in lieu of other previous researcher's who have been accumulating data regarding a nanoparticle drug design  (

While gold and iron nanoparticles exclusive as a nanotechnology is not new; missing from the list of clinical techniques is light. Tissues scatter, absorb, and generally play havoc with light, limiting direct imaging to just a few millimeters in depth. However, light imaging has great resolution, and uses relatively inexpensive equipment, and is safe. The $100,000 would have been more plausible  as investment to determine whether light can be used as a  pulsed electromagnetic frequency (PEMF) such that ongoing research entails the practical use of the electromagnetic spectrum which is photonic - biophotonic coupling of light that can be initiated as nano pulses conducive as a more viable non-invasive approach that addresses the body electric where Royal Raymond Rife's technology (mortality oscillation rate ) and Bob Beck' protocol (Beck Protocol) were instrumental in providing a quantifiable alternative that not only harnesses the electromagnetic frequencies inherent in the human body to devitalize cancerous cells but it is more cost-effective.

It would appear that the government does not want for people to know about these technologies since both technologies are suppressed by the AMA, Pharmaceutical industry and FDA. Further, the underlying problem that could manifest as a toxoplasma gondii is this stunning information regarding the cancer medication, Salinomycin. This cancer regimen comes under the scrutiny of a potent toxic reaction based on its debilitating properties. Of clinical interest is this corroborating fact: Coccidia (Coccidiasina) are a subclass of microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the apicomplexan class Conoidasida. As obligate intracellular parasites, they must live and reproduce within an animal cell. Coccidian parasites infect the intestinal tracts of animals, and are the largest group of apicomplexan protozoa. Infection with these parasites is known as coccidiosis.


The rates of positive sero-prevalence in women at child-bearing age between 1990 and 2000 were 58% in Central European countries, 51–72% in several Latin-American countries and 54–77% in West African countries. Low seroprevalence, 4–39%, was reported in southwest Asia, China and Korea as well as in cold climate areas such as Scandinavian countries (11–28%). Toxoplasma gondii has also been linked to pre-natal depression, as well as increased anxiety and depression during pregnancies. It has also been linked with mood disturbances in nonpregnant populations, including schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. Thus attributed to a human host is Toxoplasmosis which is considered to be a leading cause of death attributed to food borne illness in the United States. More than 60 million men, women, and children in the U.S. carry the Toxoplasma parasite, but very few have symptoms because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. Toxoplasmosis is considered one of the Neglected Parasitic Infections, a group of five parasitic diseases that have been targeted by CDC for public health action. However, women newly infected with Toxoplasma during pregnancy and anyone with a compromised immune system should be aware that toxoplasmosis can have severe consequences.

Why induce further problems in the human host by compromising the immune system which is designed to devitalize parasites as a natural process? As a Health Psychology student working towards a Ph.D.; I delivered a paper presentation to introduce quantum holography (formerly called radionics) and Gas Discharge Visualization (formerly called Kirlian Photography) as a complementary and alternative regimen specific to biophotonic emission which is a natural process identified by Fritz Albert-Popp. Therefore this blog identifies salient factors that may inhibit a human being's immune system based on two premises: (1) contraindicators for polymer use as a viable nanoparticle delivery system and (2) the administration of a cancer medicine, Salinomycin, that is used in non-humans. Although, results are based on an animal model; the pharmaceutical regimen used in the "device" that allows a polyether antibiotic is Salinomycin with properties of an ionophore used as a cocciodiostatic drug and has been shown to be highly effective in the elimination of cancer stem cells (CSCs) both in vitro and in vivo in animal subjects.

However, a polymer is a large molecule comprised as sub-units that are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. The term polymer addresses the topology of plastics and encompasses a large class of compounds comprising both natural and synthetic materials with a wide variety of properties. Biopolymers such as nucleic acids and proteins are essential for life. Most commonly, the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists mainly of  carbon atoms.  Elements such as silicon (sand) form familiar materials such as Silly Putty and are waterproof plumbing sealants. Whereas, oxygen is also commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, polysaccharides (in glycosidic bonds)  and DNA (in phosphodiester bonds). Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer science.

Although the nanotechnology appears to have validity as a regimen (e.g., delivery system); one important caveat for consideration is the potential clinical application of Salinomycin as having the propensity for a marked neural and muscular toxicity. Research shows how salinomycin in concentrations effective against cancer stem cells (CSC) exerts profound toxicity towards both the dorsal root ganglia as well as Schwann cells which now is of great concern. This toxic effect is mediated by elevated cytosolic Na+ concentrations, which in turn cause an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ by means of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) in the plasma membrane as well as the mitochondria. Further, the researchers indicated that elevated Ca2+  leads to calpain activation, which triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis involving caspases 12, 9 and 3. In addition, cytochrome c released from depolarized mitochondria directly activates caspase 9. Combined inhibition of calpain and the mitochondrial NCXs resulted in significantly decreased cytotoxicity and was comparable to caspase 3 inhibition.

The research identifies factors regarding pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and are important to devise strategies for the prevention of neurotoxic side effects induced by salinomycin. So a polymer-based nanoparticle that isolates a cancerous cell can "influence toxic reactions" although the cancer cell is destroyed selectively; the contraindications indicate that other neuropathic complications could be devastating in the long-term insiduous toxic reactions specific to the  plasma membrane of the mitochondria of the dorsal root ganglia as well as Schwann cells. These neural substrates are significant because of...

As a student of health psychology; short gains can not be considered for long-term deleterious effects since the axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons are known as afferents.  In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer to the axons that relay sensory information into the central nervous system  (i.e. the brain and spinal cord complex). These neurons are of the pseudo-unipolar type which suggests that an axon with two branches act as a single axon, often referred to as a distal process and a proximal process.

Since the neuron can consist of three parts:

1.Dendrite that receives the information and relays it to the Soma or cell body
2. Soma as the cell body of the neuron
3. Axon which relays information from the soma.

The application of a  polymer / medication delivery system enroute to the neuron would compromise the neuronal complex since the dendrite receives information from another neuron's axon at the synapse, and the axon sends information to the next neuron's dendrites, even though the dendrite may be covered with myelin. Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system , an action potential (electromagnet propagation) in  the dorsal root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypassing the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal  in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This could have a deleterious effect because of unknown efficacy of the medication, Salinomyci.

 Further Scwann cells or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia (glue) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Glial cells function to support neuron in the PNS, which include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. Of major concern is the two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Since myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath; the Schwann cells are involved in many important aspects of peripheral nerve biology - a compromise in the  conduction of nerve impulses along axons would be a detriment regarding nerve development and regeneration and trophic support for neurons, -- production of the nerve extracellular matrix, modulation of neuromuscular synaptic activity, and presentation of antigens to T-lymphocytes (compromised immune system in humans due to toxic reactions that occur over time ) thus inducing neuropathies such as chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy involving Schwann cells.

Finally, the medication in question, Salinomycin,  is considered not feasible for a cancer regimen since Salinomycin has been shown by Piyush Gupta et al. of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Broad Institute to kill breast cancer stem cells in mice at least 100 times more effectively than the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel. The study screened 16,000 different chemical compounds and found that only a small subset, including salinomycin and etoposide, targeted cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis and relapse.

Of major concern is the mechanism of action by which salinomycin kills cancer stem cells specifically remains unknown, but is thought to be due to its action as a potassium ionophore due to the detection of nigericin in the same compound screen. Studies performed in 2011 showed that salinomycin could induce apoptosis of human cancer cells. Salinomycin is the key compound in the pharmaceutical company Verastem's efforts to produce a anti-cancer-stem-cell drug. However, to elucidate this information that pharmacological studies did not present is this "drug" is
used in agriculture as a chicken fodder (coccidiostat_ such that the biosynthesis remains debatable. Accordingly, the team from the University of Cambridge which has synthetically cloned and sequenced the biosynthetic cluster responsible for salinomycin production, from Streptomyces albus DSM 41398 has shown that the polyketide backbone of salinomycin is synthesised on an assembly line of nine polyketide synthase (PKS) multienzymes. Furthermore, the cluster contains genes involved in oxidative cyclization including salC (epoxidase) and salBI/BII/BIII (epoxide hydrolase) genes. The cluster also contains genes suspected to be involved in self-resistance, export, precursor supply and regulation. Interestingly, the cluster contains a NRPS-like carrier protein, SalX, that is suspected to tether “pre-salinomycin” during oxidative cyclization. By inactivating salC the Cambridge-based team have demonstrated that salinomycin biosynthesis proceeds via a diene intermediate.

I believe that the $100,000 scholarship was awarded prematurely based on short-term results in an animal model that may or may not generalize to a human model; that from previous studies (her paper only identified comparable research) she may have just provided a "narrative" paper and actually did not perform this research or there appears  no valid study with her name or as a research assistant using polymer-based models to distribute medication. Such that the long-term effects outweigh the short-term gain and that "insidious" toxic reactions over time could compromise an individual's peripheral nervous system.


Adam Huczynski (2012). "Salinomycin – a New Cancer Drug Candidate". Chemical Biology & Drug Design 79: 235–238. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01287.x

Yurkovich, Marie E. et al.; Tyrakis, Petros A.; Hong, Hui; Sun, Yuhui; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Kamiya, Kohei; Leadlay, Peter F. (2011-11-11). "A Late-Stage Intermediate in Salinomycin Biosynthesis Is Revealed by Specific Mutation in the Biosynthetic Gene Cluster". ChemBioChem 13 (1): 66–71. doi:10.1002/cbic.201100590

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